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Discovering Language: An Introduction to Linguistics for Students in Taiwan

作者:Thomas Nash

出版社:政大出版社

出版日:2013/04

內容
Discovering Language is designed for an introductory linguistics course at college and university level in Taiwan. The book aims to challenge students and stimulate their interest in the nature of language and how it fits into their lives, opening their eyes to their own beliefs about language. It is shorter and easier to read than most linguistics textbooks, with much more content related directly to the lives of students in Taiwan, such as examples from Mandarin, Taiwanese and an indigenous Austronesian language. Review questions allow students to check on their learning, while classroom-tested activities give them opportunities to apply and consolidate what they have studied. Material for small-group projects in which students observe some aspect of language directly is also included.
目錄
Chapter 1 – What Are We Talking About?
PROPERTIES OF LANGUAGE
 Displacement
 A Series of Levels
 Productivity
 Conventionality
 Discreteness and Contrasts
 Social Behavior and Cultural Transmission
 Change
 Gesture
WHAT ARE WE GOING TO STUDY?
PRACTICAL USES OF LINGUISTICS
THE PRESENTATION OF LINGUISTIC EXAMPLES
SUMMARY: What Are We Talking About?
ACTIVITIES
Chapter 2 – Psycholinguistics
FOUR PRESSURES ON LANGUAGE
 Be Clear
 Be Processible
 Be Quick and Easy
 Be Expressive
UNIVERSAL OPERATING PRINCIPLES
 A. Pay attention to the ends of words
 B. There are elements of language, grammatical markers, which show the relations between words
 C. Avoid exceptions
 D. Basic elements of meaning should be marked openly and clearly
 E. The use of grammatical markers should make sense
GRAMMAR GROWS
COMPREHENSION OF SPEECH
SPEECH PRODUCTION
GESTURE
SUMMARY: Psycholinguistics
ACTIVITIES
Chapter 3 – Sociolinguistics
THE SOCIOLINGUISTIC VIEW
MUTUAL INTELLIGIBILITY
VARIETIES OF LANGUAGE
LANGUAGE AND SOCIAL GENDER
POLITENESS
 A Cross-cultural Comparison
 Compliments
SUMMARY: Sociolinguistics
ACTIVITIES
 Your Language(s)
Chapter 4 – Phonetics and Phonology
PHONETICS
Consonants
 Vowels
 Syllables
 Suprasegmentals: Elements of Sound that Interact with Syllables and Longer Units
PHONOLOGY
 Interaction between Phonology and Other Parts of Grammar
SUMMARY: Phonetics and phonology
ACTIVITIES
Chapter 5 – Morphology
BASIC CONCEPTS
DERIVATIONAL MORPHOLOGY
INFLECTIONAL MORPHOLOGY
 Inflections on Nouns
 Inflections on Verbs
 Agreement and Government
 Types of Inflectional Morphology
 Mapping
INTERACTION BETWEEN MORPHOLOGY AND PHONOLOGY
WORDS THAT GO TOGETHER: COLLOCATIONS
SUMMARY: Morphology
ACTIVITIES
Chapter 6 – Syntax
WORD CLASSES
 Nouns
 Verbs
 Adjectives
 Adverbs
 Adpositions
PHRASES AND HEADS
 Head-initial and Head-final Languages
 Head-marking and Dependent-marking
CLAUSES AND SENTENCES
 Other Ways of Creating Complex Sentences
CONSTITUENTS
SYNTACTIC RELATIONS
SYNTACTIC PROCESSES
 The Passive
 The Causative
 Other Processes
SUMMARY: Syntax
ACTIVITIES
Chapter 7 – Semantics, Pragmatics, and Discourse
THOUGHT
MAPPING MEANING ONTO LANGUAGE
WORD MEANING
 Features
FROM WORDS TO LONGER EXPRESSIONS
 Prototypes, Stereotypes, and Relational Meaning
 Reference and Sense
PRAGMATICS AND DISCOURSE
MARKEDNESS
SUMMARY: Semantics, Pragmatics, & Discourse
ACTIVITIES
Chapter 8 – Language Change
SOUND CHANGE
MORPHOLOGICAL AND SYNTACTIC CHANGE
WORD CHANGE
HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS
SUMMARY: Language Change
ACTIVITIES
Chapter 9 – Writing and Language
TYPES OF WRITING SYSTEMS
 Morphosyllabary
 Syllabary
 Abjad
 Alphabet
 Abugida
HangulHOW WRITING REPRESENTS LANGUAGE
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WRITING AND LANGUAGE AND SPEECH
 Writing Systems, Scripts, and Orthographies
 Rate of Change
 Physical Existence
 Features of Writing Unrelated to Speech
 Social Aspects
 Dependence on Technology
SUMMARY: Writing and Language
ACTIVITIES
 
Review Questions on Each Chapter
Project Descriptions
References
Index

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