篇名

2021年日本最高法院石綿集體訴訟案【寰宇醫事裁判】   免費試閱

並列篇名

The Judgement of Supreme Court for the Class Action Suits due to Asbestons in Japan in 2021

中文摘要

自2008年起日本各地陸續提起因吸入建材中石綿導致罹患肺病之集體訴訟,最高法院於2021年5月17日針對提訴日為2017∼2018年間的神奈川、東京、京都、大阪四案作出統一性的判決,裁定國家及部分建材製造商應負損害賠償責任。厚生勞動省於1975年認知到於室內場所對含有石綿的建材進行切斷穿孔等作業的建築工人有暴露於石綿粉塵罹癌的風險,根據勞動安全衛生法,厚生勞動省有責任對雇主與建材製造商監督管理。本件大阪一案,一二審均否定自營業主之國賠請求。最高法院衡酌勞動安全衛生法之宗旨、目的與權限,肯認請求國賠之資格包含自營業主;又室外作業場所暴露石綿粉成風險,不如室內作業場所,故仍維持國賠責任限於室內場所。本件上訴人A為自營業主,固得請求國賠;上訴人建材製造商為室外作業,故不負賠償責任。

英文摘要

Since 2008 there are continually class action suits in anywhere Japan because many workers absorbed asbestos in the building materials which caused pulmonary disease. On May 17th 2021 Supreme Court had a judgment for four cases in Kanagawa, Tokyo, Kyoto and Oosaka during 2017 and 2018. According to it, the Obligation for Compensation belongs to the State and partial manufacturer of building materials. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare had already recognized in 1975 that it would be risk for the building workers working indoors to get cancer to practice cutting off and piercing the building materials containing asbestos, because they were exposed to the dust of asbestos. According to Occupational Safety and Health Act, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare is obliged to supervise and manage the employers and the manufacturer of building materials. The Claim Right for a national compensation from the self-employed in the issued case in Oosaka was denied, while Supreme Court, taking the purpose, the aim and the empowerment of Occupational Safety and Health Act into consideration, confirms that the self-employed has a capacity to claim for a national compensation. Besides, due to that the risk of exposing to the dust of asbestos during outdoor working is less than indoor working, the latter would be qualified to claim for a national compensation. Therefore, the self-employed in the issued case could claim for a national compensation, whereas the manufacturer of building materials doesn’t because of outdoor working.

起訖頁

109-114

出版單位
DOI

10.53106/241553062021110061008  複製DOI  DOI查詢

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